The last ice age which ended 10,000 years ago created a land bridge between Asia and North America. This enabled early Homo Sapiens to walk to this continent many years before whites came over from Europe by boat. Over the years, these natives dispersed across both North and South America.
The Indians that settled around Calgary come from the Blackfoot, Blood, Peigan, Sarcee, and Stony bands. These Indians now reside in a number of reserves around the city.
The first settler and rancher in Calgary was Sam Livingston who settled in the early 1870's after returning from the California Gold Rush of 1849.
Fort Calgary was built in 1875 by the NorthWest Mounted Police (now the RCMP) to protect the western plain from American whiskey traders. The fort was originally named Fort Brisbois, after the first inspector of the NWMP. The Indians agreed to cede their land the Canadian Government at the signing of Treaty No. 7 in 1877. The reserves are located as follows: Blackfoot near Gliechen, Blood Indians near Cardston, Peigan near Pincher Creek, Sarcee near Calgary, and the Stony near Morley.
More history of Calgary